1.     Liu, Zhiyong, et al. "A primitive Y chromosome in papaya marks incipient sex chromosome evolution." Nature 427.6972 (2004): 348-352. # Papaya contains a primitive Y chromosome, with a male-specific region that accounts for only about 10% of the chromosome but has undergone severe recombination suppression and DNA sequence degeneration. This finding provides direct evidence for the origin of sex chromosomes from autosomes.
2.     Ming, Ray, Qingyi Yu, and Paul H. Moore. "Sex determination in papaya." Seminars in cell & developmental biology. Vol. 18. No. 3. Academic Press, 2007. # Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). 
3.     Ming R, Hou S, Feng Y, et al. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)[J]. Nature, 2008, 452(7190): 991-996. # First one to decode papaya genome.
4.     Yu, Qingyi, et al. "Low X/Y divergence in four pairs of papaya sex‐linked genes." The Plant Journal 53.1 (2008): 124-132. # Analysis of sequence divergence between four X and Y(h) gene pairs resulted in a estimated age of divergence of between 0.5 and 2.2 million years, supporting a recent origin of the papaya sex chromosomes. Our findings indicate that sex chromosomes did not evolve at the family level in Caricaceae, and reinforce the theory that sex chromosomes evolve at the species level in some lineages.
5.     Wang, Jianping, et al. "Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109.34 (2012): 13710-13715. # "Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes" supports theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution.
6.     Andrea R. Gschwend, Qingyi Yu and Ray Ming et al. Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, 109(34):13716.
7.     Aryal, Rishi, and R. Ming. "Sex determination in flowering plants: Papaya as a model system." Plant Science 217-218.1(2014):56-62.
8.     VanBuren R; Zeng F; Chen C; Zhang J; Wai CM; Han J; Aryal R; Gschwend AR; Wang J; Na JK; Huang L; Zhang L; Miao W; Gou J; Arro J; Guyot R; Moore RC; Wang ML; Zee F; Charlesworth D; Moore PH; Yu Q; Ming R. "Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome. " Genome Research 25.4(2015):524-33.
9.     Lee, Chen Yu , et al. "The development of functional mapping by three sex-related loci on the third whorl of different sex types of Carica papaya L." PLoS ONE 13.3(2018):e0194605.


1.     Fitch, Maureen MM, et al. "Virus resistant papaya plants derived from tissues bombarded with the coat protein gene of papaya ringspot virus."Nature Biotechnology 10.11 (1992): 1466-1472. # First time applying coat protein-mediated protection (CPMP) through the transfer and expression of the PRV coat protein (cp) gene in papaya to control Papaya ringspot virus (PRV) disease.
2.     Gonsalves, Dennis. "Control of papaya ringspot virus in papaya: a case study." Annual review of phytopathology 36.1 (1998): 415-437. # A thorough review of several methods of controlling papaya ringspot virus (PSRV) in Haiwaii which can be applied worldwide.
3.     Wei, W., et al. "‘Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense’-related strains associated with papaya bunchy top disease in northern Peru represent a distinct geographic lineage." Crop Protection 92.92(2017):99-106.
4.     Maina, et al. "Papaya ringspot virus Populations From East Timorese and Northern Australian Cucurbit Crops: Biological and Molecular Properties, and Absence of Genetic Connectivity." Plant Disease 101.6(2017):PDIS-10-16-1499.


1. Fitch, Maureen MM, et al. "Stable transformation of papaya via microprojectile bombardment." Plant Cell Reports 9.4 (1990): 189-194.
2. You, Pengyong, et al. "Carica papaya Lipase Catalysed Resolution of β-Amino Esters for the Highly Enantioselective Synthesis of (S)-Dapoxetine." European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2013.3(2013):557-565.
3. PAVAN, et al. "The effect of in vitro digestion on the antioxidant activity of fruit extracts (Carica papaya, Artocarpus heterophillus and Annona marcgravii)." LWT - Food Science and Technology 59.2(2014):1247-1251.
4. Salla, Swetha, et al. "Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts against H2O2 induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells." LWT - Food Science and Technology 66(2016):293-297.
5. Pandey, S, et al. "Selective anti-proliferative activities of Carica papaya leaf juice extracts against prostate cancer." Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 89(2017):515.